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Background
Consuming a combination of protein/essential amino acids and carbohydrates immediately post-workout has been shown to speed up recovery and promote greater gains in muscle mass, strength, and performance.


Who needs post workout and recovery nutrition?
This strategy should be used by anyone interested in enhancing his or her adaptations to exercise. So that includes the recreational athlete as well as the top-notch elite athlete.


What do the post workout and recovery nutrition studies reveal?
The science of post-workout nutrition is robust!1-10 And the good news is this. You only need 100 calories for this strategy to work! Yes siree indeed! If you aren’t incorporating post workout and recovery nutrition, then you must start. It is silly NOT to do this.

Some folks say they can’t eat after training. They’re not hungry; they’re not this; they’re not that. Fooey. You gotta eat! As little as 100 calories will help; here’s the proof.11 One study took healthy male US Marine recruits from six platoons and gave them supplemental nutrition post-exercise during the 54-days of basic training. They received either placebo (0g carbohydrate, 0g protein, 0g fat), control (8g carbohydrate, 0g protein, 3g fat), or protein supplement (8g carbohydrate, 10g protein, 3g fat). You don’t have to be a math whiz to see that they’re not consuming many calories post-exercise; it’s about 100 calories (in the protein group anyhow).


Compared with placebo and control groups, the protein-supplemented group had an average of 33% fewer total medical visits, 28% fewer visits due to bacterial/viral infections, 37% fewer visits due to muscle/joint problems, and 83% fewer visits due to heat exhaustion. Recruits experiencing heat exhaustion had greater body mass, lean, fat, and water losses. Muscle soreness immediately post-exercise was reduced by protein supplementation vs. placebo and control groups on both days 34 and 54.11 What did these fine young scientists conclude? “Post exercise protein supplementation may not only enhance muscle protein deposition but it also has significant potential to positively impact health, muscle soreness, and tissue hydration during prolonged intense exercise training; suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for the prevention of health problems in severely stressed exercising populations.”

Another study compared immediate (P0) or delayed (P2) intake of an oral protein supplement on muscle hypertrophy and strength over a 12-week period of resistance training in elderly males12. Thirteen older men (age 74) lifted weights 3 times per week and received oral protein in liquid form (10 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate, 3 g fat) or immediately after (P0) or two hours after (P2) each training session. They found that muscle growth was much better in the P0 group versus the P2 group. In fact, the size of the quads was 7% larger in the group that took the supplement immediately after exercise versus no change in the group that waited 2 hours to consume the supplement. The science guys concluded that “early intake of an oral protein supplement after resistance training is important for the development of hypertrophy in skeletal muscle of elderly men in response to resistance training.”

In the latest research from the cutting-edge Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, scientists assessed whether a liquid carbohydrate-protein (C+P) supplement (0.8 grams/kg carbs; 0.4 grams/kg protein) ingested early during recovery from a cycling time trial could enhance a subsequent 60 min effort on the same day vs. an isoenergetic liquid carbohydrate (CHO) supplement (1.2 grams/kg). If you’re trying to do the math in your head, the formula is basically 72.7 grams of carbs and 36.4 grams of protein for a 200 lb person versus the same gram amount in carbs alone. They found that liquid C+P ingestion immediately after exercise increases fat oxidation or burning, increases recovery, and improves subsequent same day, 60-minute efforts relative to isoenergetic CHO ingestion.


Non-essential amino acids are not Needed
Here’s an interesting tidbit. Consuming just the essential amino acids (EAA) is enough to promote significant muscle protein synthesis. One study showed that net balance of protein was similar for mixed amino acids (combination of essential and non-essential aminos) and EAA; and thus, it does not appear necessary to include nonessential amino acids in a formulation designed to elicit an anabolic response from muscle after exercise. From a practical standpoint, this would mean that whole protein foods (e.g. beef) would be inferior (if you did a pound for pound comparison) to consuming the essential amino acids (see list of EAA below).


The Essential Amino Acids
Histidine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Methionine (and/or cysteine)
Phenylalanine (and/or tyrosine)
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine